In this assignment, we take a closer look at filesystems. You will be writing a mirroring
filesystem that provides a transparent encryption wrapper on top of an exiting file system.
Specifically, you will be using FUSE (Filesystems in USErspace) to implement your filesystem, extended attributes (xattr) to differentiate between encrypted and unencrypted files,
and the OpenSSL crypto library to provide secure encryption.
The filesystem itself is a simple mirrored pass-through filesystem. For example, if our pa5-
encfs is mounted on the directory /tmp/pa5fs and is set to mirror the directory /home/user,
then any action performed on the file /tmp/pa5fs/foo.txt will be translated into an action
on the file /home/user/foo.txt.
Instead of just directly passing actions to the underlying mirrored file, however, your pa5-
encfs system will perform encryption and decryption as necessary. Thus, if you create a new
file /tmp/pa5fs/bar.txt in the aforementioned setup and write some data to it, the data will
be encrypted before being written to the backing /home/user/bar.txt file. Likewise, if you
were to read the /tmp/pa5fs/bar.txt file, your filesystem would read the backing encrypted
/home/user/bar.txt file and decrypt the contents before passing it to you. If you were to try
to read the backing /home/user/bar.txt file directly, you would just get encrypted binary
gibberish. When your filesystem is unmounted, your data will be securely stored in the
mirrored directory and indecipherable to anyone who may encounter it.
3 Your Task
The assignment is primarily a systems project. Thus, you will likely spend more time pulling
together and learning to assemble a diverse set of existing APIs then you will spend writing
This work is best accomplished in a disciplined, iterative manner. Take it one step at a
time, and make sure each step is functioning before moving on, and you will do well. Note
that a working partial solution is worth more credit then a broken “full” solution.
3.1 Dependencies and Setup
This assignment has several dependencies that must be installed in order for the provided
code to build correctly. On Ubuntu, start by running sudo apt-get update to update
your package list. Then run sudo apt-get install
• libssl-doc (optional)
• libssl1.0.0 or libssl0.9.8
You will need a working Internet connection in order to insure these packages install correctly. Note that you can also specify multiple packages in a single sudo apt-get install
automatically take care of installing these for you.
In addition to the dependencies discussed above, you may need to enable extended attribute support on your system. This is done by adding the user xattr mount option to any
mount point on which you wish to use extended attributes in your /etc/fstab auto-mount
configuration file. For example, on the Ubuntu 10.04 CS3753 VM, you must modify the
following /etc/fstab line:
so that it reads:
Note that Root UID will be unique to your system and that your system may contain
additional /etc/fstab lines that need edited. Only data filesystem mounts need to be
considered; swap, proc, and other system mounts have no concept of extended attributes
and should be ignored. You must have root privileges to edit the /etc/fstab file, so you
will probably need to use sudo in conjunction with the CLI editor of your choice.
The FUSE API is the core API used in this assignment. It provides a means for implementing filesystem in userspace. Normally filesystem are implemented as kernel modules, but
this reduces your ability to utilize userspace libraries. FUSE provides a userspace interface
for communicating with the FUSE kernel module that performs the necessary in-kernel work
on behalf of your filesystem. Consult the Resources and References sections for additional
All filesystem in Unix-like operating systems provide a common interface to the user.
We refer to this interface as the Virtual File System (VFS). The VFS is what allows us
to write programs that can be completely agnostic to the underlying filesystems on a given
system. Like all Unix filesystem, a FUSE filesystem also implements the VFS interface. The
primary task involved in writing a FUSE filesystem is to provide implementations for all of
the functions specified by the VFS.
To accomplish this task, your must implement a number of VFS functions, and then pass
function pointers to your implementations to the FUSE system via a special struct. See the
FUSE documentation and the included FUSE examples for more information [2, 3, 4, 12].
Encryption provides a means for us to mathematically protect data, rendering it unreadable
to everyone except those in possession of the necessary encryption key. There is one primary
rule to using encryption in your own programs: Never code your own encryption algorithms.
Writing good encryption libraries is a very difficult task. And only publicly reviewed, widely
deployed, and heavily tested libraries written by encryption experts should ever be trusted.
No encryption in preferable to bad encryption, as bad encryption just encourages a false
since of security.
Thus, we will be using the OpenSSL crypto library for our assignment. The
OpenSSL libraries are the de-facto standard for open source encryption. In particular, we
will be using the AES symmetric encryption algorithm with a 256-bit key in CBC mode.
The aes-crypt-util demo program provides an example of using AES encryption with a
key derived from a user-provided pass phrase. The encryption methods used in this example
are also suitable for your assignment.
The most common tripping point when using AES CBC encryption in that encryption
and decryption is an all-or-nothing game. You can’t encrypt or decrypt part of a file. You
must encrypt or decrypt the entire file or none of it. This is due to the fact that CBC
encryption schemes are state-full: the transform performed on each encrypted block is a
function of the transformed output of the previous block. Thus, if we attempt to start
encrypting or decrypting in the middle of a file, we will wind up with data that can not be
used. You will need to consider this “entire file or none of it” limitation when designing your
Consult the Resources and References sections for additional details. See the OpenSSL
documentation and the included aes-crypt-util example for more information [8, 9, 10, 11].
3.4 Extended Attributes
The POSIX extended attribute systems (xattr) provides a means to store additional file
meta data beyond the standard time-stamp, ownership, and permission data. It provides an
interface for associating arbitrary name-value pairs with specific files.
There are four operations (each with a corresponding system call) that allow you to
manipulate extend attributes: list, get, set, and remove. See the xattr-util example file
and the appropriate man pages for details on the use of each function.
Extended attributes must be supported by the underlying filesystem to function correctly.
EXT2, EXT3, EXT4, XFS, ResierFS, and a number of additional filesystem provide xattr
support. Often, however, this support is disabled by default and must be enabled via the
user xattr mount option in the /etc/fstab file. See the previous Dependencies and Setup
section for additional details on configuring your system.
In addition, the Linux xattr implementation limits userspace use of extended attributes
to a specific “user” namespace. The namespace of an extended attribute is defined by the
first dot-separated field in its name. Thus, all extended attributes modified from user space
must begin with a user. prefix. Failure to use this prefix will result in an error when
attempting to add, modify, or remove an extended attribute. The included xattr-util
program provides an example of the standard means for transparently affixing this prefix to
all xattr actions. See  for additional xattr namespace information.
Consult the Resources and References sections for additional details. See the xattr documentation, attr man page, and the included textttxattr-util example for more information.
3.5 Development Tips
As previously mentioned, you will be best served by taking an iterative approach to this
assignment. Start by familiarizing yourself with the examples and available documentation.
Then take your implementation one step at a time, insure a single feature is working before
moving on to additional features. The following represents one possible feature development
order for this assignment:
1. Start With a Copy of fusexmp.c: This will provide you with the basics of a mirror
file system on which to build.
2. Add Support for Specific Mirror Directory: fusexmp.c only supports mirroring
the root directory. Add an additional argument to main that allows the user to specify
a specific directory to mirror (hint:  contains information of passing FUSE private
data via fuse main function and accessing it within your VFS implementations). Then
modify each VFS function to redirect actions to the corresponding file in the specified
mirror directory (hint: this involves a rather simple transformation of the path variable
that many VFS functions are passed).
3. Add Support for Encryption: Add encryption and decryption support to your
system. Remember that files must be encrypted and decrypted in a single aes-crypt
pass. Also, note that you can use the aes-crypt-util function to manually encrypt
or decrypt files to aid you in testing your system. Just make sure to use the same key
pass phrase when encrypting or decrypting manually as you pass to your filesystem.
4. Add Support for an XATTR Encrypted Flag Update the flag when necessary
and only perform crypto operations when it indicates that a file in encrypted. Again,
you may find the provided xattr-util function useful when testing or debugging your
If you encounter errors, you may find FUSE’s debugging capabilities handy. If you run
a FUSE mount executable with the -d flag, it will mount the filesystem in debug mode. In
this mode, all FUSE status is printed to the terminal. Use one terminal instance to monitor
FUSE and another to interact with your filesystem and force specific behaviors and actions.
Print output sent to stderr from within your implementation is also available via this debug
4 Requirements and Specifications
In addition to the requirements and specification elicited elsewhere in this document, your
file system must satisfy the following in order to receive full credit.
• Executable Your filesystem should build a standard FUSE executable file called
pa5-encfs that mounts your file system. Your executable should accept the following
call format: ./pa5-encfs
• Read Behavior When an encrypted file is read through your filesystem, it should
be transparently decrypted and the plaintext data passed to the reading application.
When an unencrypted file is read through your filesystem, the data should be passed
directly to the reading application.
• Write Behavior When an existing encrypted file is written through your filesystem,
the plaintext data passed from the writing application should be transparently encrypted before being written to the final destination in the mirror directory. When an
existing unencrypted file is written through your filesystem, the plaintext data passed
from the writing application should be written directly to the final destination in the
• Create Behavior When a new file is created through your filesystem, it should be
encrypted (even empty files) and flagged as such.
• Encryption Strength Encryption should, at a minimum, meet AES 256-bit CBC
security levels. The provided aes-crypt.h functions meet this requirement.
• Extended Attributes Your filesystem should store a flag indicating whether or not
a file is encrypted using the the extended attributes for the corresponding mirror file.
The flag should reside in the user namespace and be named pa5-encfs.encrypted.
It should have ascii text values of either “true” or “false”. If no flag is detected on a
specific file, then it should be assumed that the file is not encrypted (same behavior as
detecting a flag with a value equal to “false”).
• Supported Functions At a minimum your filesystem must support the functions
included in the fusexmp example. Additional functions may be implemented if you
deem them necessary for your purposes.
5 What’s Included
We provide some code and examples to help get you started. Feel free to use it as a jumping
off point (appropriately cited).
• Makefile A GNU Make makefile to build all the code listed here.
• README As the title so eloquently instructs: read it. Provides usage instructions
and examples for files listed here.
• fusehello.c A basic ”Hello World” FUSE example. See README for usage instructions.
• fusexmp.c A basic FUSE mirrored filesystem example that mirrors the root directory
(/) and supports most standard operations. See README for usage instructions.
• xattr-util.c A basic extended attribute manipulation program. Provides an example
of proper Linux xattr use. See README for usage instructions.
• aes-crypt-util.c A basic AES encryption program using the local aes-crypt library
(see aes-crypt.h) and the OpenSSL EVP API. See README for usage instructions.
• aes-crypt.h A basic AES file-pointer centric encryption library interface. Implemented in aes-crypt.c.
• aes-crypt.c A basic AES file-pointer centric encryption library implementation. Uses
the OpenSSL EVP API.
6 What You Must Provide
When you submit your assignment, you must provide the following as a single archive file:
1. A copy of your pa4-endfs FUSE code
2. A copy of any supporting code used by your filesystem
3. A makefile that builds any necessary code
4. A README explaining how to build and run your code
50% of you grade will be based on implementing a filesystem that meets the following criteria.
You will be expected to provide functional proof of the following criteria during your grading
• +15 points: Filesystem properly mirrors target directory specified at mount time.
• +10 points: Filesystem uses extended attributes to differentiate between encrypted
and unencrypted files.
• +15 points: Filesystem can transparently read and write securely encrypted files
using a pass phrase specified at mount time.
• +10 points: Filesystem can transparently read and update unencrypted files
In addition, the following items are worth extra credit. In no case will the maximum
score on the assignment exceed 110/100.
• +10 extra points: Filesystem encrypts, hides, or otherwise obfuscates the directory
structure to make it cryptographically difficult to determine the names or locations of
• +10 extra points: Filesystem encrypts, hides, or otherwise obfuscates file attributes
to make it cryptographically difficult to determine the time-stamps, ownership, and
permissions of encrypted files.
• +5 extra points: Filesystem supports multiple encryption keys for different files,
using an additional extended attributes to mark each file with a unique identifier indicating the key used to encrypt it. Filesystem only attempts to decrypt files associated
with the currently loaded key. You can think of this as a basic form of multi-user
• +5 extra points: Filesystem supports multiple encryption keys for a single file. You
will probably need to use a layered encryption method, where a master key is used to
encrypt each file, and then multiple copies of the master key are themselves encrypted
with the necessary additional keys and stored for future retrieval. Such a system would
be useful if you wished to provide multiple users with access to an encrypted file with
forfeiting your master key. When combined with the previous item, this will implement
fairly versatile multi-user support.
If your code does not build or run without errors, you will not receive any credit on the
objective portion (50%) of your assignment.
10% of your grade will be based on code cleanliness.
If your code generates warnings when building under gcc on the VM using -Wall and
-Wextra you will be penalized 1 point per warning. In addition, to receive full credit your
• Meet all requirements elicited in this document
• Code must adhere to good coding practices.
• Code must be submitted to Moodle prior to due date.
The other 40% of your grade will be determined via your grading interview where you
will be expected to explain your work and answer questions regarding it and any concepts
related to this assignment.
8 Obtaining Code
The starting code for this assignment is available on the Moodle and on github. If you would
like practice using a version control system, consider forking the code from github. Using
the github code is not a requirement, but it will help to insure that you stay up to date with
any updates or changes to the supplied codebase. It is also good practice for the kind of
development one might expect to do in a professional environment. And since your github
code can be easily shared, it can be a good way to show off your coding skills to potential
employers and other programmers.
Github code may be forked from the project page here:
Refer to your textbook and class notes on the Moodle for an overview of filesystems.
If you require a good C language reference, consult K&R. If you need an updated C99
reference see Harbison & Steele.
The Internet is also a good resource for finding information related to solving this
You may wish to consult the man pages for the following items, as they will be useful
and/or required to complete this assignment. Note that the first argument to the “man”
command is the chapter, insuring that you access the appropriate version of each man page.
See man 1 man for more information. Not all of these man pages are installed be default.
Install the previously discussed dependencies or consult an online man page repository if you
can not locate a specific man page on your system.
• man 1 make
• man 1 fusermount
• man 5 attr
• man 2 setxattr
• man 2 getxattr
• man 2 listxattr
• man 2 removexattr
• man 3 EVP
• man 3 EVP CipherUpdate
• man 3 crypto
• Many of the system calls used in the FUSE examples also have man pages
In addition, you may find a number of the references in the bibliography helpful.
 freedesktop.org. Guidelines for extended attributes. http://www.freedesktop.org/
 FUSE. Filesystems in Userspace. http://fuse.sourceforge.net/.
 FUSE. Fuse Doxygen API Reference. http://fuse.sourceforge.net/doxygen/
 FUSE. Fuse Wiki. http://sourceforge.net/apps/mediawiki/fuse/index.php?
 Harbison, Samuel and Steele, Guy. C: A Reference Manual. Fifth Edition: 2002.
Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
 Johnson, Michael. A tour of the Linux VFS. 1996. http://tldp.org/LDP/khg/
 Kernighan, Brian and Dennis, Ritchie. The C Programming Language. Second Edition:
1988. Prentice Hall: New Jersey.
 OpenSSL. Cryptography and SSL/TLS Toolkit. http://www.openssl.org/.
 OpenSSL. OpenSSL Documents. http://www.openssl.org/docs/.
 OpenSSL. OpenSSL EVP Documentation. http://www.openssl.org/docs/crypto/
 Pillai, Saju. Openssl AES encryption example. Decemper 9th, 2008. http://saju.
 Pfeiffer, Joseph. Writing a FUSE Filesystem: a Tutorial. January 10th, 2011. http:
 Stevens, Ted. Speech on Net Neutrality Bill. 2006. http://youtu.be/f99PcP0aFNE.