Operating Systems COMP 310 Assignment #3: Memory Management

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1. Assignment Description This is the final assignment of the course. After implementing the memory manager, you will have built a simple, simulated OS. So far, our simulated OS supports simple Shell commands, and is capable to do process management according to different scheduling techniques. The assumption in the second assignment was that processes fully fit in the Shell memory (like what we saw in the Virtual Memory lecture). In this assignment, we will extend the simulation with demand paging. Similar to Assignment 2, this assignment is heavyweight. Plan your time wisely and don’t hesitate to ask questions on Ed if you get stuck. You will use the C programming language in your implementation. The assignment is presented from a Linux point of view using the SOCS server mimi.cs.mcgill.ca, which you can reach remotely using ssh or putty. Please make sure your assignment runs on mimi.cs.mcgill.ca since these are the computers the TAs will be using for testing your code. 1.1 Starter files description: You have three options: • [Recommended] Use your solution to Assignment 2 as starter code for this assignment. If your solution passes the public unit tests it is solid enough to use as a basis for the third assignment. • Use the official solution to Assignment 2 provided by the OS team as starter code. • Ask a friend, or a team for their solution to Assignment 2. In this case, you have to give credit to your peers in the README. Failure to do so will be considered plagiarism. 1.2 Your tasks: Your tasks for this assignment are as follows: • Add scaffolding for paging. • Design and implement demand paging. • Implement the LRU replacement policy in demand paging. On a high level, in this assignment we will allow programs larger than the shell memory size to be run by our OS. We will split the program into pages; only the necessary pages will be loaded into memory and old pages will be switched out when the shell memory gets full. Programs executed through both the run and the exec commands need to use paging. In addition, we will further relax the assumptions of exec by allowing the same program to be executed multiple times by exec (remember that in Assignment 2 the programs run by exec needed to be different). For simplicity, in our tests for this assignment we will only consider the RR (round robin) policy, with a time slice of 2 instructions. However, the paging mechanism will work with the other scheduling Operating Systems COMP 310 – ECSE 427 McGill University Balmau Assignment #3 Page 2 of 7 policies as well, if it is implemented correctly. The API for exec does not change, so you still need to specifically pass the RR argument. More details on the behavior of your memory manager follow in the rest of this section. Even though we will make some recommendations, you have full freedom for the implementation. In particular: • Unless we explicitly mention how to handle a corner case in the assignment, you are free to handle corner cases as you wish, without getting penalized by the TAs. • You are free to craft your own error messages (please keep it polite). • Just make sure that your output is the same as the expected output we provide in the test cases in Section 2. • Formatting issues such as tabs instead of spaces, new lines, extra command line prompts, etc. will not be penalized. Let’s start coding! J 1.2.1. Implement the paging infrastructure We will start by building the basic paging infrastructure. For this intermediate step, you will modify the run and exec commands to use paging. Note that, even if this step is completed successfully, you will see no difference in output compared to the run/exec commands in Assignment 2. However, this step is crucial, as it sets up the scaffolding for demand paging in the following section. As a reminder from Assignment 2, the run API is: run SCRIPT Executes the commands in the file SCRIPT run assumes that a file exists with the provided file name, in the current directory. It opens that text file and then sends each line one at a time to the interpreter. The interpreter treats each line of text as a command. At the end of the script, the file is closed, and the command line prompt is displayed. The exec API is: exec prog1 prog2 prog3 POLICY Executes up to 3 concurrent programs, according to a given scheduling POLICY. exec takes up to 4 arguments; POLICY is always the last argument. As in Assignment 2, we will not be testing recursive exec calls. Unlike Assignment 2, exec now supports running the same script (i.e., exec can take identical arguments). You will need to do the following to implement the paging infrastructure. 1. Setting up the backing store for paging. A backing store is part of a hard disk that is used by a paging system to store information not currently in main memory. In this assignment, we will simulate the backing store as a directory, situated in the current directory. o An empty backing store directory is created when the shell is initialized. In case the backing store directory is already present (e.g., because of an abnormal shell termination) then the initialization removes all contents in the backing store. o The backing store is deleted upon exiting the shell with the quit command. If the Shell terminated abnormally without using quit then the backing store may still be present. Operating Systems COMP 310 – ECSE 427 McGill University Balmau Assignment #3 Page 3 of 7 2. Partitioning the Shell memory. The shell memory will be split into two parts: o Frame store. A part that is reserved to load pages into the shell memory. The number of lines in the frame store should be a multiple of the size of one frame. In this assignment, each page consists of 3 lines of code. Therefore, each frame in the frame store has 3 lines. o Variable store. A part that is reserved to store variables. You are free to implement these two memory parts as you wish. For instance, you can opt to maintain two different data structures, one for loading pages and one for keeping track of variables. Alternatively, you can keep track of everything (pages + variables) in one data structure and keep track of the separation via the OS memory indices (e.g., you can have a convention that the last X lines of the memory are used for tracking variables). For now, the sizes of the frame store and variable store can be static. We will dynamically set their sizes at compile time in the next section. Finally, implement a new command that allows us to reset the variable store, called resetmem. resetmem Deletes the content of the variable store. resetmem will not be called from an exec or run command. It is only used standalone, either in batch mode or in interactive mode. 3. Code loading. The shell will load script(s) into the frame memory as follows. o The script(s) are copied into the backing store. The original script files (in the current directory) are closed, and the files in the backing store are opened. If exec has identical arguments, the program will be copied into the backing store multiple times. Note that this trick will allow you to run the same program multiple times within an exec command. o You will use the files in the backing store to load program pages into the frame store. o At this point, you will load all the pages into the frame store for each program. This will change in the next section. Unlike Assignment 2, where you were encouraged to load the scripts contiguously into the Shell memory, in this assignment the pages do not need to be contiguously loaded. For example, you can load into memory as followsfor 2 programs that each have 2 pages (i.e., 6 lines of code per program). Frame store 0 prog2-page0 1 prog2-page0 2 prog2-page0 3 prog1-page0 4 prog1-page0 5 prog1-page0 6 prog2-page1 7 prog2-page1 8 prog2-page1 9 prog1-page1 10 prog1-page1 11 prog1-page1 12 Operating Systems COMP 310 – ECSE 427 McGill University Balmau Assignment #3 Page 4 of 7 o When a page is loaded into the frame store, it must be placed in the first free spot (i.e., the first available hole). 4. Creating the page table. For each script, a page table needs to be added to its PCB to keep track of the loaded pages and their corresponding frames in memory. You are free to implement the page table however you wish. A possible implementation is adding a page table array, where the values stored in each cell of the array represent the frame number in the frame store. For instance, in the example above, the page tables would be: Prog 1: pagetable[0]=1 //frame 1 starts at line 3 in the frame store pagetable[1]=3 //frame 3 starts at line 9 in the frame store Prog 2: pagetable[0]=0 //frame 0 starts at line 0 in the frame store pagetable[1]=2 //frame 2 starts at line 6 in the frame store Note that you will also need to modify the program counter to be able to navigate through the frames correctly. For instance, to execute prog 1, the PC needs to make the transitions between the 2 frames correctly, accessing lines: 3,4,5,9,10,11. Assumptions: o The frame store is large enough to hold all the pages for all the programs. o The variable store has at least 10 entries. o An exec/run command will not allocate more variables than the size of the variable store. o Each command (i.e., line) in the scripts will not be larger than a shell memory line (i.e., 100 characters in the reference implementation). o A one-liner is considered as a single command. If everything is correct so far, your run/exec commandsshould have the same behavior as in Assignment 2. You can use the existing unit tests from Assignment 2 to make sure your code works correctly. 1.2.2. Extend the OS Shell with demand paging We are now ready to add demand paging to our shell. In Section 1.2.1, we assumed the all the pages of all the programs fit in the shell memory. Now, we will get rid of this assumption. 1. Setting shell memory size at compile time. First, you need to add two compilation flags to adjust the frame store size and variable store size at compile time as follows. o In gcc, you will need to use the -D compilation option, which replaces a macro by a value -D =. o In make, you can pass the value of the variable from the command line. Example: At the command line: make xval=42 In the Makefile: gcc -D XVAL=$(xval) -c test.c In test.c: int x=XVAL; o Using the technique described above, your shell will be compiled by running make mysh framesize=X varmemsize=Y Operating Systems COMP 310 – ECSE 427 McGill University Balmau Assignment #3 Page 5 of 7 where X and Y represent the number of lines in the frame store and in the variable store. You can assume that X will always be a multiple of 3 in our tests and that X will be large enough to hold at least 2 frames for each script in the test. The name of the executable remains mysh. o Include an extra printout in your shell welcome message as follows: ”Frame Store Size = X; Variable Store Size = Y” Where X and Y are the values passed to make from the command line. Please make sure your program compiles this way and that the memory sizes are adjusted. 2. Code loading. Unlike the previous Section, in this section the code pages will be loaded into the shell memory dynamically, as they become necessary. o In the beginning of the run/exec commands, only the first two pages of each program are loaded into the frame store. A page consists of 3 lines of code. In case the program is smaller than 3 lines of code, only one page is loaded into the frame store. Each page is loaded in the first available hole. o The programs start executing, according to the selected scheduling policy (in our case, RR with time slice of 2 lines of code). 3. Handling page faults. When a program needs to execute the next line of code that resides in a page which is not yet in memory, a page fault is triggered. Upon a page fault: o The current process P is interrupted and placed at the back of the ready queue, even if it may still have code lines left in its “time slice”. The scheduler selects the next process to run from the ready queue. o The missing page for process P is brought into the frame store from the file in the backing store. P’s page table needs to be updated accordingly. The new page is loaded into the first free slot in the frame store if a free slot exists in the frame store. o If the frame store is full, we need to pick a victim frame to evict from the frame store. For now, pick a random frame in the frame store and evict it. We will adjust this policy in Section 1.2.3. Do not forget to update P’s page table. Upon eviction, print the following to the terminal: ”Page fault! Victim page contents:” ”End of victim page contents.” o P will resume running whenever it comes next in the ready queue, according to the scheduling policy. Note that, because the scripting language is very simple the pages can be loaded in order into the shell memory (i.e., for a program, you can assume that you will first load page 1, then pages 2, 3, 4 etc.). This greatly simplifies the implementation, but be aware that real paging systems also account for loops, jumps in the code etc. Operating Systems COMP 310 – ECSE 427 McGill University Balmau Assignment #3 Page 6 of 7 Also note that if the next page is already loaded in memory, there is no page fault. The execution simply continues with the instruction from the next page, if the current process still has remaining lines in its “time slice”. 1.2.3. Adding Page Replacement Policy The final piece is adjusting the page replacement policy to Least Recently Used (LRU). As seen in class, you will need to keep track of the least recently used frame in the entire frame store and evict it. Note that, with this policy, a page fault generated by process P1 may cause the eviction of a page belonging to process P2. 2. TESTCASES IMPORTANT: The TAs will use batch mode when testing your code, so make sure that your program produces the expected outputs when testcases run in batch mode. You can assume that the TAs will run one test at a time in batch mode. We provide you with 5 testcases and expected outputs for your code. Please run the testcases to ensure your code runs as expected. 3. WHAT TO HAND IN The assignment is due on April 4, 2022 at 23:59, no extensions. You need to submit the following: • All the files in your project, including the testcases and a README, in one zipped file, named as follows: lastname_firstname_mcgillid.zip • If you are working in a team, the zipped file name is lastname1_firstname1_mcgillid1_ lastname2_firstname2_mcgillid2.zip If the name is too long, only include the last names and McGill IDs. • The README should mention the author name(s) and McGill ID(s), any comments the author(s) would like the TA to see, and mention whether the code uses the starter code provided by the OS team or give credit to starter code borrowed from your peers. • The project must compile on mimi by running make clean; make mysh framesize=X varmemsize=Y • The project must run in batch mode, i.e. ./mysh < testfile.txt Note: You must submit your own work. You can speak to each other for help but copied code will be handled as to McGill regulations. Submissions are automatically checked via plagiarism detection tools. 4. HOW IT WILL BE GRADED Your assignment is graded out of 20 points. • IMPORTANT: Your program must compile and run on mimi to be graded. If the code does not compile/run using the commands in Section 3, you will receive 0 pointsfor the entire assignment. Operating Systems COMP 310 – ECSE 427 McGill University Balmau Assignment #3 Page 7 of 7 • Known testcases: 10 points. You were provided 5 testcases, with expected outputs. If your code matches the expected output, you will receive 2 points for each testcase. You will receive 0 points for each testcase where your output does not match the expected output. Formatting issues such as tabs instead of spaces, new lines, extra command line prompts, etc. will not be penalized. • Surprise testcases: 10 points. The OS team also has 5 surprise testcases, similar to the ones already provided to you. The surprise testcases are graded the same as the known testcases. • The TA will look at your source code only if the program runs (correctly or not). The TA looks at your code to verify that you implemented the requirement as requested. Specifically: o Hardcoded solutions will receive 0 points for the hardcoded testcase, even if the output is correct. o Programming expectations. Your code needs to meet the programming style posted on myCourses. If not, your TA may remove up to 5 points, as they see fit. o You must write this assignment in the C Programming language, otherwise the assignment will receive 0 points. Congratulations! If you made it this far, you have implemented a simple simulated Operating System J