# ENSF 337: Programming Fundamentals Lab-4

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## Exercise A: Pointer arithmetic in C

What to Do:
Download the file lab4exA.c from D2L. Draw an AR diagram for point one

What to Submit:

## Exercise B: More Practice on Pointers and Pointer Arithmetic

Pointers and pointers arithmetic are important features of C and C++, and we decided to give you one
more exercise on this topic. The file that you will be using for this exercise contains a small C program,
which is not a good model of proper use of pointers, but its only designed to help you to concentrate on
interpretation of different styles of dereferencing pointers and pointer arithmetic.

What to Do:

Download file lab4exB.c from D2L and draw memory diagrams for point one and point two.

What to Submit:

## Exercise C: A Simple Macro:

What to Do:
Download the file lab4exC.c from D2L. If you try to compile this file you will get an error because the
definition of ELEMENTS, which is supposed to be a C macro, is missing.

Your task in this exercise is to write the macro, called ELEMENTS. It should return the number of
elements of an array. For obvious reasons this macro can only work with arrays, not with the pointers.
Submit copy of your source code and your program output as part of your lab report in PDF format.

## Exercise D: Duplicating library function, using pointer arithmetic

The library header file <string.h> contains prototypes for several c library functions, such as strlen,
strcpy, strcat, strcmp, strnca, etc. For example the cat in strcat stands for concatenation,
which means adding one string to the end of another. Here is a very brief program that uses strcat:
int main(void)
{
char s[8];
printf(“ s now contains %s and its length is %d.\n”, strcpy(s, “ENCM”), strlen(s));
printf(“ s now contains %s and its length is %d.\n”, strcat(s, “339”), strlen(s));

return 0;
}

The output of this program will:
s now contains ENCM and its length is 4.
s now contains ENCM339 and its length is 7.

In this operation three steps are involved:
• Finding the ‘\0’ character at the end of the destination string (the end of “ENCM” in the example).
• Copying all the characters from the source string (“339” in the example).
• Adding a ‘\0’ character at the end of the modified destination string.

A similar function called strncat with the following function prototype:
char* strncat(char* dest, const char* source, int n);

Appends the first n characters of string source to string dest, and returns a char* to dest. If the length of
the C string in source is less than n, only the content up to the terminating null character, ‘\0’, is copied.

What to do:
This exercise is about writing your own version of couople of the C library functions. In a practical
programming project, writing a function that does the same job as a function in the library would be a
serious waste of time. On the other hand, it can be a very helpful exercise for a student learning the
fundamentals of C.

Important Note: when writing your own copy of library functions:
1. You should only use pointer-notation. It means you are not supposed to use any square brackets,
[], in your functions. In other words, your function must only use pointer arithmetic.

2. You are not allowed to call any library functions in your version of functions.
From D2L download the file lab4exD.c. Study the file and write down your prediction for the program
output. Compile the program and run it to check your prediction. If your prediction was wrong, try to
understand why.

Make another copy of lab4exD.c; call the copy my_lab4exD.c. In my_lab4exD.c, add a function
definition for my_strlen that uses pointer arithmetic (pointer – pointer) to calculate the length of a
c-string. Then, replace all of the calls to strlen in the function main with calls to my_strlen, and then
make sure your modified program produces appropriate output.

Once my_strlen is working, add a function definition for my_strncat to my_lab4exD.c. Don’t make
any function calls within your definition of my_strncat. Replace all of the calls to strncat in main with
calls to my_strncat.

Submit the copy of completed source file and your program output(s) that shows your program work, as
part of lab report in PDF format.

## Exercise E: Reading Numeric Input as a String

The scanf library function may not be always the best tool to read the user’s numeric input. An alternative
method is to read the user’s input as a string of characters, and then, after a complete input errorchecking, to convert it to a number.

Consider a string of digits such as:
char string[4] = “237”;
‘2’ ‘3’ ‘7’ ‘\0’

The above picture shows each digit is stored in one of the elements of the array string. The ASCII
values for each of these characters are:
‘2’ == 50
‘3’ == 51
‘7’ == 55

The following calculation can be used to convert this string digits to the integer value 237. Here is the
method of calculation
int num;
num = (string[0]–’0′)*100 + (string[1]–’0’)*10
+ (string[2]–’0′);

Note: You need to subtract the character code ‘0’, or its ASCII value, 48, from each character in the
string to get its actual value (a digit from 0 to 9). (Also, the above only works for three-digit numbers!
Something smarter is needed to handle a digit sequence with a length that isn’t known in advance.)

A preferred function to read strings in C is the library function fgets.
The following example shows how to use this function.
char string [6];
printf(“Enter a string: “);
fgets(string, 6, stdin);

The above statements reads a string of up to maximum five characters or up to the end-of-line (‘\n’ which
is Enter on most keyboards), whichever comes first.

stdin as the third argument indicates that the input comes from the terminal. (A different third argument
of type FILE* could be used to read a string from a file; more about that later in the course.) For
example if user enters: “ABCDEFGH” it only stores the “ABCDE” followed by a ‘\0’. See the following
picture:
‘A’ ‘B’ ‘C’ ‘D’ ‘E’ ‘\0’
If user’s input is “AB”, it reads up to and including the ‘\n’ (Enter).
‘A’ ‘B’ ‘\n’ ?? ?? ??

In this case, you may have to write a couple of lines of code to remove the ‘\n’. This means to replace it
with a ‘\0’, if it is not desired that ‘\n’ be part of the input.

What to Do:
take the following steps:

Step one: Compile, the program and run the program. When asked to enter integer numbers, enter valid
inputs (positive or negative integers). The program converts your input from a string of digits to an integer
and displays the value.

Step two: Now enter several non-integer input such as:
12abc
12..9
23.4
.56
-0.45

The program indicates your input is “Invalid”.

Step three: Read the source code and try to understand how the program works.
Step four: Modify the program to be able to read real numbers such as:
23.4
.56
-.23
5
-0.45
-0.0000067
(It does not have to handle input in scientific notations, such as 1.23e+45, but it should accept integers as
real values.)

Note: the program should still detect invalid (non-numeric) input such as:
12abc
12..9
123.4bb
bb123.4
\$1235.99

To implement this step you should create a file called read_double.c that contains the following functions.
int read_real(char* digits, int n, double * num);
int is_valid_double(const char* digits);
double convert_to_double(const char *digits);

You should also create a file called prog_two.c, similar to prog_one.c that demonstrates your

This is an exercise about working with strings, so we are NOT allowing you to call any library functions

acceptable inputs as follows:
23.4
.56
-.23
-0.45
-0.0000067
564469999
+8773469
+.5

Also, you program should detect any invalid input such as:
• Too many decimal points (for example “12..999”).

• Invalid character(s) (for example “23avb45”, or 2,347).

• Invalid space(s) between digits (for example “+ 234 77”).