CSCI435 / CSCI935 Assignment #1


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Design a C or C++ (ANSI standard) program that implements the colour image
processing chain converting images captured by CMOS image sensors into true colour
RGB images.
To satisfy quality requirements, images captured by semiconductor sensors have to be
processed before they are passed to higher stages of computer vision systems.
You are provided with two bmp files test1.bmp and test2.bmp, which contain
Bayer Pattern CFA data directly captured by CMOS image sensors. The images have
resolution 640×480 pixels. The Bayer pattern used in the CMOS sensor is shown below:
Fig. 1. Mosaic of the Bayer pattern
Although basic operations with BMP files is not the focus of this assignment and BMP
file read/write functions have been implemented for you in the program template
assignment1.c, it may be a good idea to get familiar with the BMP file format that is
explained below for your information.
The bmp file format stores image data together with supplementary information in the structured binary
file. The BMP format uses Litte Endian byte order for short int, int and unsigned int values. It contains
three major segments as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. The structure of BMP files.
File Header
Info Header
Image Data
The File Header provides general information that helps file type verification and also indicates the starting
position of image data in the file. The File Header structure can be described as follows:
typedef struct
char fileMarker1; /* ‘B’ */
char fileMarker2; /* ‘M’ */
unsigned int bfSize;
unsigned short unused1;
unsigned short unused2;
unsigned int imageDataOffset; /* Offset to the start of image data */
The first two characters ‘B’ and ‘M’ indicate that this is a BMP file and their presence must be verified
before any further analysis takes place. If ‘B”M’ file markers are correct, this is a BMP file and thus, the
value of imageDataOffset indicates the start of image data in the file ( see Fig. 2 ). However, before
reading the image data, it is important to know the image width and its height.
This information is stored in the Info Header.
typedef struct
unsigned int biSize;
int width; /* Width of the image */
int height; /* Height of the image */
unsigned short planes;
unsigned short bitPix; /* 24 for true colour */
unsigned int biCompression;
unsigned int biSizeImage;
int biXPelsPerMeter;
int biYPelsPerMeter;
unsigned int biClrUsed;
unsigned int biClrImportant;
As images can be considered as 2D arrays, height indicates the number of rows and width indicates the
number of columns. Each element of the array contains information about three color components blue,
green and red which together can represent any complex color. Thus, each image data element can be
described as the following structure:
typedef struct
unsigned char b; /* Blue value */ unsigned char g; /* Green value */ unsigned char r; /* Red value */
Note: All these structures need to be packed when they are defined
( #pragma pack(push, 1) ). Otherwise, your program may insert slack bytes.
Note: BMP files have Little Endian byte order. Test your computer platform first (compile platform
platform_test.c and run it) to make sure it is also Little Endian.
Picture elements of true colour images are stored in the Image Data segment sequentially ( see Fig. 3). The
total number of Pixel elements is width*height.
CSCI435 / CSCI935 Spring Session 2016 UOW
Fig. 3. The starting position and the internal structure of Image Data segment.
Picture elements of CFA images are stored in the Image Data segment sequentially too ( see Fig. 4). The
total number of unsigned char elements is width*height (the total number of bytes is 3 times less
than for true colour images)
Fig. 4. The internal structure of Bayer pattern images.
Bayer pattern picture elements captured by the sensor have been stored in BMP files
test1.bmp and test2.bmp. In this assignment you are provided with a template C
file assignment1.c that:
– prompts the user to enter the input file name ( test1.bmp or test2.bmp )
– reads content of a specified bmp file with CFA data into a 2D array
– calls the function processCFAImage(…) that you have to complete
– stores the produced true colour RGB image in the output bmb file.
There is no need to use OpenCV library for this assignment. You need to modify
assignment1.c (or use it as a basis for your C/C++ solution ) to implement a colour
processing chain that includes the following stages:
– CFA Interpolation
– Colour Correction
– Gamma Correction
These stages may be implemented in the function processCFAImage(…). However,
it may be better to implement them as three separate functions called from
processCFAImage(…) in the required sequence.
You can select any CFA interpolation algorithms for your implementation such as
Nearest Neighbor, Bilinear, etc. The requirement is that it must produce an RGB image
with the same width and height. The algorithms are not complex, but you need to take
into account boundary conditions, as pixels around the image boundary may not have
b g r ‘B”M’ ImageDataOffset b g r b g r b g r
imageDataOffset width*height*3
‘B”M’ ImageDataOffset p p
imageDataOffset width*height
p p
neighboring pixels on one or two sides. Try to find the most efficient and simple solution
to interpolate boundary pixels.
Colour Correction is a matrix operation. You should use the following matrix that was
optimized for this CMOS image sensor:
Gamma correction should be implemented using a look-up table as described in the
lecture notes. The only difference is that the table must map 8-bit values onto 8-bit
values. The table entries must be calculated using γ = 0.5 and implement the following
transfer function:

You need to find the expression how to calculate and fill the table.
The function processCFAImage(…) has the following prototype:
bool processCFAImage( unsigned char **cfaImage,
Pix ** rgbImage,
int width,
int height);
Where width and height are cfa (and also rgb) image sizes in pixels. cfaImage
is a two dimensional array with CFA Bayer pattern values. rgbImage is a 2D array of
RGB image samples that must be produced by your image processing chain. If there are
no errors in the function, it returns true. The resulting rgb samples are stored in a bmp
file. The produced bmp file can be displayed by any image viewer. For test1.bmp it
should be similar to the image shown below
1.18 -0.09 -0.13
-0.24 1.29 -0.05
-0.18 -0.44 1.71
In this assignment you have to submit:
– assignment1.c (or assignment1.cpp) source file with appropriate comments
– assignment1.txt report
All submitted files must include an assignment header with your name, your student
number and your email address. Anonymous submissions without these details will
not be assessed and will not be marked.
The report must provide a one page description of the implemented colour processing
chain, used algorithms, comment on image quality and conclusions. Do not add any
separate *.h header files to your solution as it makes evaluation and marking of the
assignment more complex. Add the two files to a “.zip” archive for submission.
On the Moodle site for the subject you will find a section with the title “Assignment
Submission”. Under “Assignment 1” upload your “.zip” file. You are allowed to submit
up to 3 times before the deadline.
Suggestions regarding OpenCV
After submitting your assignment, you can modify your code to use OpenCV to make
sure your development environment is set properly and to practice with OpenCV library.
You can replace one-by-one some of the functions provided in assignment1.c with
relevant functions from OpenCV to create 2D arrays, use operations with matrices, read
BMP files and write into BMP files. This should simply you code.
There is no need to submit this version of your program. This exercise is helpful to get
familiar with basics operations supported by OpenCV that you will need when you start
working on next assignments.
1. Submit your assignment before the due date. Follow the submission requirements explained in the
section SUBMISSION. You are allowed to submit up to 3 times before the deadline. Only the latest
submission will be tested and marked.
4. Enquiries about the marks can only be made within a maximum of 1 week after the assignment
results are published. After 1 week the marks cannot be changed.