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In this lab you will simulate demand paging and see how the number of page faults depends on page
size, program size, replacement algorithm, and job mix (job mix is defined below and includes locality
and multiprogramming level).
The idea is to have a driver generate memory references and then have a demand paging simulator
(called pager below) decide if each reference causes a page fault. Assume all memory references are
for entities of one fixed size, i.e., model a word oriented machine, containing M words. Although in a
real OS memory is needed for page tables, OS code, etc., you should assume all M words are available for page frames.
The program is invoked with 6 command line arguments,5positive integers and one string
M, the machine size in words.
P, the page size in words.
S, the size of a process, i.e., the references are to virtual addresses 0..S-1.
J, the ‘‘job mix’’, which determines A, B, and C, as described below.
N, the number of references for each process.
R, the replacement algorithm, FIFO, RANDOM, or LRU.
The driver reads all input, simulates N memory references per program, and produces all output.
The driver uses round robin scheduling with quantum q=3 (i.e., q references for process 1, then q for
process 2, etc.).
The driver models locality by ensuring that a fraction A of the references are to the address one
higher than the current (representing a sequential memory reference), a fraction B are to a nearby
lower address (representing a backward branch), a fraction C are to a nearby higher address (representing a jump around a ‘‘then’’ or ‘‘else’’ block), and the remaining fraction (1-A-B-C) are to random
addresses. Specifically, if the current word referenced by a process is w, then the next reference by
this process is to the word with address
• w+1 mod S with probability A
• w-5 mod S with probability B
• w+4 mod S with probability C
• a random value in 0..S-1 each with probability (1-A-B-C)/S
Since there are S possible references in case 4 each with probability (1-A-B-C)/S, the total probability
of case 4 is 1-A-B-C, and the total probability for all four cases is A+B+C+(1-A-B-C)=1 as required.
There are four possible sets of processes (i.e., values for J)
J=1: One process with A=1 and B=C=0, the simplest (fully sequential) case.
J=2: Four processes, each with A=1 and B=C=0.
J=3: Four processes, each with A=B=C=0 (fully random references).
J=4: One process with A=.75, B=.25 and C=0; one process with A=.75, B=0, and C=.25; one process
with A=.75, B=.125 and C=.125; and one process with A=.5, B=.125 and C=.125.
The pager routine processes each reference and determines if a fault occurs, in which case it makes
this page resident. If there are no free frames for this faulting page,aresident page is evicted using
replacement algorithm R. The algorithms are global (i.e., the victim can be any frame not just ones
used by the faulting process). Because the lab only simulates demand paging and does not simulate
the running of actual processs,Ibelieve you will find it easiest to just implement a frame table and
not page tables. My program is written that way. (This is advice not a requirement.)
The system begins with all frames empty, i.e. no pages loaded. So the first reference for each process
will definitely be a page fault. If a run has D processes (J=1 has D=1, the others have D=4), then
process k 1<=k<=D begins by referencing word 111*k mod S.
Your program echos the input values read and produces the following output. For each process, print
the number of page faults and the average residency time. The latter is defined as the time (measured in memory references) that the page was evicted minus the time it was loaded. So at eviction
calculate the current page’s residency time and add it to a running sum. (Pages never evicted do not
contribute to this sum.) The average is this sum divided by the number of evictions. Finally, print
the total number of faults and the overall average residency time (the total of the running sums
divided by the total number of evictions).
Use the same file of random numbers as in lab2. Good luck.
Operating Systems: 202 2016-17 Spring Demand Paging
Notes:
(1) Despite what books may say, the % operator in C, C++, and Java is the remainder function
not the mod function. For most (perhaps all) C/C++/Java compilers, (-2)%9 is -2; whereas
mod would give (-2) mod 9 = 7. So to calculate (w-5) mod S above, write (w-5+S)%S.
(2) The big issue in this lab is the REplacement of pages. But the placement question does arise
early in the run when there are multiple free frames. It is important that we all choose the
same free frame so that you can get the benefit of my answers and debugging output and so
that on the mailing list everyone will be referring to the same situation. I choose the highest
numbered free frame; you must do so as well
(3) Since random numbers are involved, we must choose the random numbers in the same order.
Here is a non-obvious example. In the beginning of your program you set the referenced word
for each job to be 111*k as described in the lab. Now you want to simulate q (quantum) references for each job. I suggest and used code like the following.
for (int ref=0; ref<q; ref++) {
simulate this reference for this process
calculate the next reference for this process
}
One effect is that after simulating the qth reference you will calculate the first reference for
the next quantum. Hence, you may be reading the random number file before you switch to
the next process. Specifically, at the beginning of the run you have the first reference given to
you for process 1, namely 111*1=111 mod S. Now you simulate q references (the first to
address 111 mod S) and you calculate the next q addresses. These calculations use one or two
random numbers for each reference (two if a random reference occurs). So you read the random number file once or twice for the last reference (q+1), even though you will be context
switching before simulating this reference. Although you do not have to use my code above,
you do need to use the random numbers the same way I do.
(4) When calculating the next word to reference, you have four cases with probability A, B, C,
and 1-A-B-C. Read a random number from the file and divide it by
RAND_MAX+1=2147483648 (RAND_MAX is the largest value returned by the random number generator I used to produce the file; it happens to equal Integer.MAX_VALUE). This
gives a quotient y satisfying 0≤y<1. If the random number was called r (an integer) the statement you want in Java is (note the 1d)
double y = r / (Integer.MAX_VALUE + 1d)
The C/C++ equivalent is (note the 1.0)
double y = r / (MAXINT + 1.0)
If y<A, do case 1 (it occurs with probability A),
else if y<A+B, do case 2, (it occurs with probability B),
else if y<A+B+C, do case 3 (it occurs with probability C).
else /* y>=A+B+C */, do case 4 (it occurs with probability 1-A-B-C.)
The above is a handy technique you may find useful outside this class so I recommend you
figure out why it works. This is definitely not a hint that I will put it on the final exam. I
won’t.
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