CS352 Project 3: Can you set up your own IP network?


Category: You will Instantly receive a download link for .zip solution file upon Payment


5/5 - (5 votes)

In this project, you will set up a small IP network consisting of hosts and a router. Your network will function with full end-to-end connectivity, and you will experiment with tools like ping and traceroute. Consider the following network topology: h1 h2 \ / R1 / \ h3 h4 Here, R1 is an IP router and h1…h4 are endpoints. In a safe experimental setting running inside a virtual machine, you will use the `ip` suite of commands to set up the right IP addresses for all the interfaces, and the right routing table entries for all the routers and endpoints in this network. Welcome to the AS352 network! Step 1: Set up mininet ————– To create a safe virtualized environment, we will use a tool called mininet, which uses linux containers (see ref. [1]) to allow you to create a small network of hosts and routers that can run inside your laptop. You can read more about mininet from ref. [2]. First, download the standard mininet virtual machine (VM) from here (mininet 2.2.2, ubuntu 14.04): https://github.com/mininet/mininet/releases/download/2.2.2/mininet-2.2.2-170321-ubuntu14.04.4-server-i386.zip [large file — 500+ MByte] (Please make sure the URL you entered is exactly the same as the above!) Set it up and play around according to the instructions: http://mininet.org/vm-setup-notes/ Follow instruction in the above link, to download and install a virtualization program such as: VMware Workstation for Windows or Linux, VMware Fusion for Mac, VirtualBox ( free!, GPL) for any platform, or qemu ( free!, GPL) for Linux. 2 We recommend that you use VirtualBox. By the end of this, you must be able to log into the VM using ssh and transfer files into VM (If not, follow the instruction in the above link!). Step 2: Play with the topology Python file ———————————- Run the attached network topology file, AS352.py, which invokes mininet’s Python API to create a network topology with 4 endpoints (hosts) and 1 router. Note the use of `sudo` while running the program. “““` mininet@mininet-vm:~/project3$ sudo python AS352.py *** Creating network *** Adding controller *** Adding hosts: h1 h2 h3 h4 r1 *** Adding switches: *** Adding links: (h1, r1) (h2, r1) (h3, r1) (h4, r1) *** Configuring hosts h1 h2 h3 h4 r1 *** Starting controller c0 *** Starting 0 switches *** Routing Table on Router: Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface *** Starting CLI: mininet> “““` Within the mininet shell, you can do various things to control the hosts and router we just instantiated. One highly convenient aspect of mininet is that the hosts, the router, and the VM all share the same filesystem, so the same files are visible from all hosts and the router. Also, you can run commands, dump outputs into a file, and access it from any host or router or a regular terminal inside the VM. A few examples of playing around with the mininet topology. 3 – Run the `ls` command on host h1. “““` mininet> h1 ls AS352.py commands.txt mininet> “““` Note that the command is prefixed by `h1` to indicate to mininet that the command must be run on `h1`. You can replace `ls` by any command which can run on h1, by just typing h1 where is something that would run on a regular terminal. You can run `ls` on any host or router by changing the prefix of the command: ls – Inspect the network topology from within mininet: “““` mininet> net h1 h1-eth0:r1-eth1 h2 h2-eth0:r1-eth2 h3 h3-eth0:r1-eth3 h4 h4-eth0:r1-eth4 r1 r1-eth1:h1-eth0 r1-eth2:h2-eth0 r1-eth3:h3-eth0 r1-eth4:h4-eth0 c0 mininet> “““` Note that `net` is not prefixed by any host or router name, since it is a native mininet command. – You can even run commands on the router! Mininet is cool because you get to treat both endpoints and the router as standard Linux machines on which you get to do “regular” things. Let’s dump the routing table on r1. “““` mininet> r1 ip route mininet> “““` 4 There is nothing in the routing table on r1. As you may have guessed, that is one of the things that you will fix in this project. – Mininet can also read a list of commands from a file. Suppose we added the text h1 ls net r1 ip route into the file `commands.txt`. Then, you can use the `source` mininet command to run all the commands in sequence, one after another. “““` mininet> source commands.txt AS352.py commands.txt h1 h1-eth0:r1-eth1 h2 h2-eth0:r1-eth2 h3 h3-eth0:r1-eth3 h4 h4-eth0:r1-eth4 r1 r1-eth1:h1-eth0 r1-eth2:h2-eth0 r1-eth3:h3-eth0 r1-eth4:h4-eth0 c0 mininet> “““` – You can find more examples at http://mininet.org/walkthrough/#interact-with-hosts-and-switches Step 3: Setting up your network ———————– Now we come to the crux of the project. You need to set up the network interfaces on all hosts and routers, as well as the routing tables, so that end to end IP communication is possible between all hosts and the router interfaces. You will do this in three steps. (1) Set up the IP addresses of all interfaces. You will use the following IP addresses for each interface: h1-eth0 h2-eth0 h3-eth0 h4-eth0 5 r1-eth1 r1-eth2 r1-eth3 r1-eth4 Use the `ip addr` command to set up the correct IP address for each interface on each machine. You need to set up 8 interface addresses in total. If you need help in using the command, try running `ip addr help`. (2) Set up the default routes for the hosts. The hosts h1…h4 are only connected to the rest of the network through one interface. Any external communication must hence use a “default” route, which moves the packets on the host towards the router. For example, all traffic on host h1 must use the interface/device h1-eth0 to reach any destination (other than itself). Use the `ip route` command to do this. If you need help understanding the command, try running `ip route help`. You will set up 4 default routes, one for each endpoint h1…h4. (3) Set up the routes on the router. The last remaining piece is having the router interconnecting the endpoints match the packets with the correct outgoing network interface. The forwarding table entries on router r1 conceptually must look like: Destination IP address -> Port h1 ( -> r1-eth1 h2 ( -> r1-eth2 h3 ( -> r1-eth3 h4 ( -> r1-eth4 Once again, use the `ip route` command to set up these routes. You will need to set up 4 routes, one for each destination endpoint. (4) Test your network You’ve done all the hard work. Now test whether your network works as intended, using the ping and traceroute commands. A correctly configured network must be able to execute a successful `ping` from any host or the router to any valid IP address inside the network. For example, you can ping h4 from h1, to check reachability: 6 “““` mininet> h1 ping PING ( 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=168 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.046 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=0.044 ms ^C — ping statistics — 3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2004ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.044/56.315/168.855/79.577 ms mininet> “““` You can also run traceroute between any two points. For example, a traceroute from h1 to h4 would show something like this: “““` mininet> h1 traceroute traceroute to (, 30 hops max, 60 byte packets 1 ( 0.018 ms 0.003 ms 0.003 ms 2 ( 0.008 ms 0.003 ms 0.004 ms mininet> “““` Note that if you got the “traceroute: command not found mininet” error, please install traceroute using “sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install traceroute”. Note that there are 2 hops — the router and the destination of the traceroute, with the IP address of the router interface connected to h1 showing up on row 1. How we will test your commands —————————— As part of your submission, you will turn in two text files: commands.txt and a README file (more on this below). Once you have set up all the interfaces and routes, put all your commands into a file called commands.txt. Please do not modify AS352.py. 7 When your commands file is run by typing `source commands.txt`, it must produce outputs that show successful connectivity for any subsequent ping or traceroute between two valid IP addresses in the network. We may test connectivity between any or all pairs of endpoints and the router. We will only use ping and traceroute to test connectivity. “““` *** Starting CLI: mininet> source commands.txt mininet> h1 ping PING ( 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=1070 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=60.8 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=0.030 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=4 ttl=63 time=0.047 ms ^C — ping statistics — 4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3010ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.030/282.820/1070.311/455.336 ms, pipe 2 mininet> “““` We will run only your commands.txt with an unmodified AS352.py. We will not accept any modifications to AS352.py. Mininet should not crash when running your commands.txt. README file ———– In addition to your programs, you must also submit a README file with clearly dilenated sections for the following. 0. Please write down the full names and netids of all your team members. 1. Briefly discuss how you implemented each functionality: setting up interfaces, setting up default routes, and setting up per-destination routes. 2. Are there known issues or functions that aren’t working currently in your attached code? If so, explain. 3. What problems did you face developing code for this project? 4. What did you learn by working on this project? Submission ———- Turn in your project on Sakai assignments. Only one team member needs to submit. Please upload a single zip file consisting of commands.txt and README. 8 Important Notes ————— Mininet has an FAQ/help page at https://github.com/mininet/mininet/wiki/FAQ. There is also a mailing list where you can post (after checking the FAQ and the archives) if you have questions. Since the aforementioned mininet VM does not come with a pre-installed graphical interface, using this VM will require you to get comfortable with the linux terminal/comamand line. You are free to install mininet separately on a machine with a graphical interface (note that it requires `sudo` privileges to be installed and run); however, your commands must work with the VM image listed above. The lack of a graphical interface also means that you may need to use multiple terminals to run things inside the VM. Terminal multiplexers like `tmux` and `screen` will be very helpful here. You may be surprised that even endpoints have routing tables. When endpoints are connected through multiple network interfaces, a forwarding table on the endpoint determines through which interface a given packet is transmitted. (That is not the case with this network, of course.) You will often need to “debug” your network configuration by checking whether packets reached the correct interface with the correct header values. Use a packet sniffer to do this. You may be familiar with wireshark, but it requires a graphical user interface. We recommend using `tcpdump` which is a good command-line equivalent. For example, the following command uses tcpdump to sniff the r1-eth2 interface on r1, and dumps the sniffed packets to a file r1-dump.txt. “““` mininet> r1 tcpdump -v -U -i r1-eth2 -x > r1-dump.txt & mininet> h1 ping PING ( 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.021 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.028 ms 64 bytes from icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=0.037 ms ^C — ping statistics — 3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 1998ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.021/0.028/0.037/0.009 ms mininet> “““` In a separate window, you can check the output of the tcpdump: “““` 9 mininet@mininet-vm:~/project3$ head r1-dump.txt 18:31:29.326269 ARP, Ethernet (len 6), IPv4 (len 4), Request who-has tell, length 28 0x0000: 0001 0800 0604 0001 feb5 2946 9994 c0a8 0x0010: 0001 0000 0000 0000 c0a8 0002 18:31:29.326278 ARP, Ethernet (len 6), IPv4 (len 4), Reply is-at 8e:17:54:31:99:e7 (oui Unknown), length 28 0x0000: 0001 0800 0604 0002 8e17 5431 99e7 c0a8 0x0010: 0002 feb5 2946 9994 c0a8 0001 18:31:29.326279 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 63, id 11901, offset 0, flags [DF], proto ICMP (1), length 84) > ICMP echo request, id 10815, seq 1, length 64 0x0000: 4500 0054 2e7d 4000 3f01 4280 0a00 0002 0x0010: c0a8 0002 0800 d6cb 2a3f 0001 71cc 8f5e mininet@mininet-vm:~/project3$ “““` START EARLY to allow plenty of time for questions on Piazza should you run into difficulties. References ———- [1] Linux namespaces. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_namespaces [2] A network in a laptop: Rapid prototyping for software-defined networks. http://conferences.sigcomm.org/hotnets/2010/papers/a19-lantz.pdf